This is the most important phase in the production of cachaça, whose quality entirely depends upon an excellent fermentation. Are indispensable: the right ripeness of the sugar cane, the standardization of the Brix (grade of sugar) in the syrup before entering the fermentation process, the quality of the cane (low presence of insect perforation) and the composition of the broth (lacking components in the cane may cause deficiency in saccharine bacteria and thus compromise the fermentation). Fermentation of the syrup must take place within 36 hours after having entered the fermentation barrels. Over – fermented cachaça is removed together with the first part of the produced cachaça (the “cabeça”). The fermented syrup is called “vinho”.