The selected sugar cane, with its leaves and roots already removed, enters the phase where the syrup is extracted. There are two types of machinery: the “forrageira” and the “moenda”. The first one crushes the sugar cane in order to facilitate the extraction of the syrup, the moenda does the extraction. After the extraction, the syrup circulates in a recipient called “decantador” where impurities are removed. After that, the filtered syrup goes into barrels to ferment. During grinding we acquire a second by – product (a residue called “bagaço”), which is very versatile. During the 2001 – 2002 harvest, the Fazenda Vaccaro used it as follows: as fuel for the boiler (30%); as fertilizer, in compost form, mixed with another by – product called “garapao”; as fertilizer on the sugar cane and coffee plantations. The by – product “ bagaço” can be added to the fodder of grazers, used as material for handmade wrapping, etc... The ashes from the boiler, rich in minerals (mostly potassium), are also used as fertilizer.